a Sensio Labs Product

The flexible, fast, and secure
template engine for PHP

Tags » extends

Questions & Feedback

License

Twig documentation is licensed under the new BSD license.

extends

The extends tag can be used to extend a template from another one.

Note

Like PHP, Twig does not support multiple inheritance. So you can only have one extends tag called per rendering. However, Twig supports horizontal reuse.

Let's define a base template, base.html, which defines a simple HTML skeleton document:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        {% block head %}
            <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" />
            <title>{% block title %}{% endblock %} - My Webpage</title>
        {% endblock %}
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="content">{% block content %}{% endblock %}</div>
        <div id="footer">
            {% block footer %}
                &copy; Copyright 2011 by <a href="http://domain.invalid/">you</a>.
            {% endblock %}
        </div>
    </body>
</html>

In this example, the block tags define four blocks that child templates can fill in.

All the block tag does is to tell the template engine that a child template may override those portions of the template.

Child Template

A child template might look like this:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Index{% endblock %}
{% block head %}
    {{ parent() }}
    <style type="text/css">
        .important { color: #336699; }
    </style>
{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
    <h1>Index</h1>
    <p class="important">
        Welcome on my awesome homepage.
    </p>
{% endblock %}

The extends tag is the key here. It tells the template engine that this template "extends" another template. When the template system evaluates this template, first it locates the parent. The extends tag should be the first tag in the template.

Note that since the child template doesn't define the footer block, the value from the parent template is used instead.

You can't define multiple block tags with the same name in the same template. This limitation exists because a block tag works in "both" directions. That is, a block tag doesn't just provide a hole to fill - it also defines the content that fills the hole in the parent. If there were two similarly-named block tags in a template, that template's parent wouldn't know which one of the blocks' content to use.

If you want to print a block multiple times you can however use the block function:

1
2
3
<title>{% block title %}{% endblock %}</title>
<h1>{{ block('title') }}</h1>
{% block body %}{% endblock %}

Parent Blocks

It's possible to render the contents of the parent block by using the parent function. This gives back the results of the parent block:

1
2
3
4
5
{% block sidebar %}
    <h3>Table Of Contents</h3>
    ...
    {{ parent() }}
{% endblock %}

Named Block End-Tags

Twig allows you to put the name of the block after the end tag for better readability:

1
2
3
4
5
{% block sidebar %}
    {% block inner_sidebar %}
        ...
    {% endblock inner_sidebar %}
{% endblock sidebar %}

Of course, the name after the endblock word must match the block name.

Block Nesting and Scope

Blocks can be nested for more complex layouts. Per default, blocks have access to variables from outer scopes:

1
2
3
{% for item in seq %}
    <li>{% block loop_item %}{{ item }}{% endblock %}</li>
{% endfor %}

Block Shortcuts

For blocks with few content, it's possible to use a shortcut syntax. The following constructs do the same:

1
2
3
{% block title %}
    {{ page_title|title }}
{% endblock %}
1
{% block title page_title|title %}

Dynamic Inheritance

Twig supports dynamic inheritance by using a variable as the base template:

1
{% extends some_var %}

If the variable evaluates to a Twig_Template object, Twig will use it as the parent template:

1
2
3
4
5
// {% extends layout %}

$layout = $twig->loadTemplate('some_layout_template.twig');

$twig->display('template.twig', array('layout' => $layout));

New in version 1.2: The possibility to pass an array of templates has been added in Twig 1.2.

You can also provide a list of templates that are checked for existence. The first template that exists will be used as a parent:

1
{% extends ['layout.html', 'base_layout.html'] %}

Conditional Inheritance

As the template name for the parent can be any valid Twig expression, it's possible to make the inheritance mechanism conditional:

1
{% extends standalone ? "minimum.html" : "base.html" %}

In this example, the template will extend the "minimum.html" layout template if the standalone variable evaluates to true, and "base.html" otherwise.

How do blocks work?

A block provides a way to change how a certain part of a template is rendered but it does not interfere in any way with the logic around it.

Let's take the following example to illustrate how a block works and more importantly, how it does not work:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
{# base.twig #}

{% for post in posts %}
    {% block post %}
        <h1>{{ post.title }}</h1>
        <p>{{ post.body }}</p>
    {% endblock %}
{% endfor %}

If you render this template, the result would be exactly the same with or without the block tag. The block inside the for loop is just a way to make it overridable by a child template:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
{# child.twig #}

{% extends "base.twig" %}

{% block post %}
    <article>
        <header>{{ post.title }}</header>
        <section>{{ post.text }}</section>
    </article>
{% endblock %}

Now, when rendering the child template, the loop is going to use the block defined in the child template instead of the one defined in the base one; the executed template is then equivalent to the following one:

1
2
3
4
5
6
{% for post in posts %}
    <article>
        <header>{{ post.title }}</header>
        <section>{{ post.text }}</section>
    </article>
{% endfor %}

Let's take another example: a block included within an if statement:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
{% if posts is empty %}
    {% block head %}
        {{ parent() }}

        <meta name="robots" content="noindex, follow">
    {% endblock head %}
{% endif %}

Contrary to what you might think, this template does not define a block conditionally; it just makes overridable by a child template the output of what will be rendered when the condition is true.

If you want the output to be displayed conditionally, use the following instead:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
{% block head %}
    {{ parent() }}

    {% if posts is empty %}
        <meta name="robots" content="noindex, follow">
    {% endif %}
{% endblock head %}
This website is powered by PHP and Twig. The Twig logo is © 2010-2012 Sensio Labs